Circulation problem relates to diseases of the arteries, veins and lymphatics. There are some unusual conditions like excessive sweating, cold feet and cold hands, and blushing that will also be discussed.
DISEASES OF THE VEINS:
Venous disease commonly affect the veins of the lower limb, largely due to the fact that we adopt an erect posture that is constantly subjected to the effect of gravity. Blood flows very sluggishly in the leg veins and is dependent upon the efficiency of the calf muscle pump and the valves in the vein that allows blood to flow in only one direction, that is towards the heart.
Distribution of Veins in our Legs:
Mainly there are 3 types of veins in our legs.
These Veins lie under the skin and are easily seen in thin individuals. they are numerous and frequently dilate and become tortuous - called varicose Veins. Functionally these veins are less important.
These are important veins surrounded by muscles. Muscle contraction supported by valves in the veins enables effective return of blood to the heart. These veins protected by the muscle and fascial compartment do not become varicose veins. When blood clot(DVT) develops in these veins, it can propagate and can become serious.
Also called communicating veins- they communicate between superficial and deep veins. Sometimes they also become varicose and may need treatment.
Diseases affecting the veins:
Varicose veins occur due to weakness of the vein wall and valves, ineffective muscle contraction, and often as a sequel to blood clot in the deep veins. They are very common affecting 10-20% of the general population. Over 100000 people undergo varicose vein surgery in the UK every year.
Treatment for varicose Veins is necessary for the following reasons:
- To improve cosmetic appearance
- To alleviate symptoms
- To improve mobility
- To prevent development of leg ulcers and skin changes in the leg.
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
Thickening of blood within the deep veins can result in clot formation. These clots often can migrate to lungs giving rise to a serious condition called - Pulmonary Embolism. Blood clot in the deep veins can lead to blockage and sometimes this can cause ankle swelling and ulceration in the leg. several recognised risk factors have been implicated in the deep development of deep vein thrombosis. they are
- Recovering from surgery
- Heart Failure
- Long Distance Flying ( Economy Class Syndrome)
- Oral Contraceptive Pills & Hormonal replacement treatment
- blood disorder.
It is therefore important to minimise these risks as much as possible to prevent blood clot. The condition usually present as acute painful leg swelling and should be investigated with ultrasound scan.
Patients usually present with acute red painful cordlike swelling along the distribution of the vein due to inflammation of the vein wall.
Typically these ulcers occur around the ankle associated with skin discolouration. Quarter of a million people in the UK suffer from this condition. Varicose Ulcers develop as a result of varicose veins or as a complication of blood clots in the deep veins.
DISEASES OF THE ARTERIES:
Other Aneurysm Diseases
Peripheral Vascular Disease
DISEASES OF THE LYMPHATICS:
OTHER VASCULAR PROBLEMS:
Excessive Sweating (Hyperhidrosis)
We all sweat visibly or invisibly. Most normal or moderate sweating can be easily controlled by anti-perspirants or aluminium chloride. Some other people sweat heavily that is socially unacceptable and interferes with ones professional activities.
In some people hyperhidrosis is a consequence of another illness, and in many others it is due to overactive sweat glands or overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system.
- Armpit Sweating
- Hand Sweating ( Palmar Hyperhidrosis)
- Plantar Hyperhydrosis
- Groin & Buttock Hyperhidrosis
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